History of Holy Quran
The Quran is the Islamic text, i.e. the text of the followers of Islam. Islam is the established religion among the Arabs, the people who were still confined to the Arabian Peninsula, by the Prophet Muhammad at the beginning of the seventh century. The Holy Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad through the angel Gabriel; This happened partly in Mecca, his hometown, and partly in Medina, where he managed to establish a state in a stateless tribal society. The message was revealed in Arabic, the language of the people to whom it was originally addressed, although it was intended for all of humanity. The Holy Qur’an specifically mentions that Muhammad was a messenger to all of humanity and that he was the last messenger sent. Therefore, the Qur’an is the last message that replaces and reaffirms the fundamental religion that God has drawn for Jews and Christians, as well as for Muslims. Today, the total number of Muslims in the world exceeds a billion, accounting for almost a fifth of the world’s population. For all Muslim societies, regardless of their language and wherever they live, the Quran is their writing.
The first thing to understand about the Qur’an is its form. The Arabic word “Quran” literally means “recitation” and “recitation.” Likewise, the Quran was recited orally and written in book form. The true power of the Qur’an remains in oral recitation because it aims to read aloud and melodious, but nevertheless, the verses are written in the documents available to help preserve and protect them, and those are collected and arranged in the book. . Training in both the private sector and at a later stage, in an institution. The Qur’an was not intended to tell a chronological story, and therefore the Qur’an should not be seen as a serial novel like Genesis. The Arabic book bearing the name of the Qur’an is almost the New Testament. In most versions, there are about 600 pages.
2.How is the Quran organized?
The Qur’an consists of 114 parts or chapters of equal length. Each chapter is called a surah in the Arabic language and every phrase or phrase in the Qur’an is called a verse, literally “a sign.” Like the Bible, the Qur’an is divided into separate units called English. These verses are not standard in length or meters, and where each begins and ends, it is not decided by humans, but rather dictated by God. Each of them is a process of locating a classified site with a closed meaning, or “tag”, identified by the word verse in Arabic. The shortest surah with ten words and the longest surah, which ranks second in the text, is 6100 words. The first surah al-Fatihah is relatively short (twenty-five words). From the second surah, the wall is gradually declining, although it is not a difficult and fast rule. The last 60 Surahs occupy almost the same space as the second. Some of the longer verses are much longer than the short suras. All but one of the fence begins with the means of Hur-ur-Rahman, the compassionate yoke, “In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.” Each surah has a name that usually mentions a major currency. For example, the longest surah, Surat Al-Baqara, or “The Cow”, is named after the story of Moses commanding the Jews to offer the sacrifice of the cow, which begins with God’s saying:
And remember when Moses said to his people, “God commands you to slaughter a cow …” (Qur’an 2:67)
Since the different chapters are of different lengths, the Qur’an was divided by the scholars of the first century after the death of the Prophet into thirty equal parts, each part called the judge “ in Arabic. This division of the Qur’an was made for people to memorize or read in a more organized way, and it has no effect on the original structure, as these are just simple signs on the sides of the pages indicating the game. During Ramadan, the judge recites every evening and completes the entire Qur’an in thirty days of the month.
3.Translations from the Holy Quran
The beginner should know some things about the translations of the Quran.
First, there is a difference between the Quran and its translation. From a Christian point of view, the Bible is the Bible regardless of the language in which it is found. But translating the Qur’an is not the word of God, because the Qur’an is exactly the Arabic words that God speaks, which were revealed to the Prophet Muhammad by Gabriel. The word of God is only the Arabic Qur’an, as God Almighty says:
“In fact, I revealed it as an Arabic Quran.” (Qur’an 12: 2)
Translation is simply an interpretation of the meaning of the Qur’an. This is why the modern English translation was titled “Meaning of the Noble Qur’an”: it only seeks to give meaning, but it fails, like any translation, to reproduce the form of the Bible. The translated text loses the unique original quality, so be aware of how the translation translates the original message at all levels of importance and is unlikely to match. For this reason, everything that is considered a “recitation” of the Qur’an must be done in Arabic, like the recitation of the Qur’an in the five daily prayers for Muslims.
Second, there is no perfect translation of the Qur’an, and because they are human works, they always have errors. Some translations are better in linguistic quality, while others are accurate in representing meaning. Many inaccurate and sometimes misleading translations are sold on the market, which are generally not accepted as reliable copies of the Qur’an by traditional Muslims.
Third, although review of all English translations is beyond the scope of this article, some translations are recommended over others. The most read English translation is Abdullah Yusef Ali, followed by Muhammad Marmaduk Pickthal, the first English Muslim translation. Yusuf Ali’s translation is generally acceptable, but his sometimes helpful marginal comment can be strange and unacceptable. Another Hilal and Mohsin Khan translation works, “Generalized interpretation of the meaning of the Holy Quran.” While this is more accurate, many translated Arabic terms and endless parentheses make it difficult to follow and confusing for beginners. Saheeh International released a new version with smoother text, and perhaps better translation because it combines the accuracy of reading with reading.
4.Interpretation (Tafseer in Arabic)
Although the meanings of the Qur’an are easy and clear to understand, care must be taken when making statements about religion without relying on real comments. The Prophet Muhammad not only attended the Qur’an, but also explained it to his companions, and these words have been collected and preserved to this day. God says
“And we have sent you (O Muhammad) the message that you can clearly explain to people what he has sent you …” (Qur’an 16:44)
In order to understand some of the deeper meanings of the Qur’an, one must rely on the comments mentioned in these phrases by the Prophet, as well as from his companions, and not on what they understand from the text, their understanding of this – this is limited to their knowledge. the previous.
There is a specific methodology for interpreting the Qur’an to extract its correct meaning. Quranic sciences, as they are called, are a very specialized field of Islamic research that requires mastery of many disciplines, such as interpretation, recitations, hyphens, indifference, circumstances of revelation, transcription, Quranic rules, unusual terms, and religious, Arabic terms. Language and literature. According to Quranic scholars, the correct way to explain verses from the Qur’an is:
(I) An interpretation of the Noble Qur’an.
2 – Interpretation of the Noble Qur’an in the Sunnah of the Prophet.
Third: the interpretation of the Qur’an by the Companions.
4 – Interpretation of the Qur’an in Arabic.
5 – Interpretation of the Qur’an “in opinion” if it does not contradict the previous four sources.
5.The completion of the Quranic study.
Definition of “wahi”
The Arabic word Wahi comes from the origin of the word Oasis and is used to describe divine revelation. It has a variety of different meanings in the Arabic language, which are interpreted as “quick or divine sign”, “giving or conveying a message” or “good speech”. In Islamic terms, Wahay can be precisely defined as God’s divine message sent to God’s chosen people (prophets). This message can be sent openly or in a hidden and mysterious manner, and it conveys wisdom and knowledge that transcends reality. Human and material materials.
“Then we send this inspiration to Moses’ mother ”(28: 7)
“Remember that your Lord inspired the angels (with the message): I am with you” (8:12)
“He also does not say his own desire. It is nothing less than the inspiration that was sent to him.” (53: 3-4)
“This is part of the invisible news that we reveal to you (O Prophet) with revelation.” (3:44)
6.Literacy of the Holy Prophet (saw)
The first revelation of the Noble Qur’an was revealed on the fifteenth night of Ramadan in 610 CE. C. At that time, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, was forty years old. For many years it became his practice to visit a small cave on Mount Hira, located about 3 kilometers from the holy city of Mecca. The Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, withdrew to this cave in isolation, hoping for several days. Take food and water and pray. Over the years, periods of loneliness increased, which extended their stay from a few days to a few weeks. During Ramadan, the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, used to fast and spend the entire month in this spiritual state of isolation.
It was in one of these periods in the year 610 AD. C, when the first revelation of the Holy Quran began. In a hadith narrated by Aisha (may God bless him and grant him peace), the angel Gabriel came to see the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, and said Eckra: “Read!” He replied, “I am not a reader.” The angel carried him, pressed him hard and released and again said Ikra, “Read!”. The Prophet replied, “I am not a reader.” The angel grabbed him and pressed him hard for the third time and said:
Read the name of your Lord who created. He created man from blood clots. Read! Your Lord is the most generous who taught the use of the pen. The man knew what he did not know. (Al-Alaq, 5: 96)
These are the first verses of the Quran recited by the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him. Recently, in the interpretation of this hadith, many scholars have called the illiterate Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). By translating the previous hadith, the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, quotes “I cannot read” or “I cannot read.” However, this translation is not consistent with what happened at the time. There is no point in interpreting the words of the Holy Prophet from “What I am with two horns” as “I cannot read” because the angel did not give him a book to read or a piece of paper to read. If the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, got something to read, then it makes sense to translate the words into “I cannot read.” But in this case, the angel Gabriel (pbuh) only asked the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, to repeat the word “read” after him. To answer this request, the issue of literacy is not relevant because even a child can say the word “read” if asked. Therefore, the most accurate translation of the words of the Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace, is “I am not a reader”, and it is always a literal translation of “ma a bi qarain”. Why did he refuse to follow the angel immediately? What is clear is that God Almighty has indeed satisfied the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, with the concept of monotheism and the unity of God. He never worshiped idols, but he believed in the God of the Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH). As was the case, the Prophet (PBUH) refused to read until he knew what he was asked to say. It was a new era in his prophecy, and the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, knew this. Since he believed in God Almighty, He wanted to make sure that everything that was asked of him as a recitation, being divine revelation, must come from God Almighty and nobody. Once the angel Gabriel (PBUH) recited the entire verse and asked him to recite in the name of his Lord, only then did the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, recite the same thing.
Other commentators mistakenly interrupt the adjective “my mother”, attributed to the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, in the Qur’an, which means without letters. It is bad and bad vision. The exact meaning of the word “mom” means a person who has not received formal education, or received instruction or education by a teacher or teacher. The word “mom” comes from the word “mother”, which means mother Arabs at the time used the word ummi to describe themselves as there is no formal educational system available, which means that most Arabs have no recourse to learn to read and write. Thus, a person who did not learn by traditional means at that time was called my mother, i.e. a person who remains in his original form, purity and originality at birth. However, in the case of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, it is true that he did not have a formal education or registration. However, it was not limited to regular learning styles. God has decided to make him the last and last prophet sent to humanity. As such, God Almighty took responsibility for his teaching by teaching him all that was necessary. The Holy Quran says:
“He was the one who taught the Qur’an. He created man. He taught him intelligent speech.” (55: 2-4)
All commentators commenting on the Noble Qur’an unanimously agree that this verse refers to the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, meaning that God taught the Prophet of the Qur’an and intelligent discourse. As we saw earlier, one of the many meanings of the Qur’an is that it is the book that encompasses all knowledge of the universe. Thus, the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, was not an ignorant or illiterate man, but God himself had taught him divinely. God Almighty has given him an evident proof that stems from his personality. The Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, did not worship idols or indulge in playing or drinking. He was known for his honesty and sincerity and had no indication of an unethical practice in his daily life. All these attributes were present in his personality before receiving the invitation to the prophecy. This is even more surprising when one studies his life in the context of pagan Arab society. Most individuals did not distinguish between virtue and vice, but were left to fend for themselves. Attributes such as honesty, truthfulness, and spirituality were created through the conditions that prevailed at the time and were practically non-existent in Arabia before Islam. Since there is no sanctuary for alternative education or training, pagan Arabs have engaged in many uncivilized practices. However, the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, was already guided by God himself (glory be to Him) and therefore was not conditioned by Arab culture and society.
7.Method and forms of disclosure
The Noble Qur’an was revealed to the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, in various ways.
- In the form of dreams:
- Revelation revealed directly in the heart:
- Revelation revealed the sound of the bell.
- The revelation that an angel brings in the form of a person.
- Revelation through an angel in its true form.
- Direct revelation from God
8.The process of divine revelation
The beginning of revelation
According to his testimony, the Holy Qur’an revealed in the month of Ramadan the Night of Power. “Ramadan is the (month) in which we send the Qur’an, …” (Al-Baqarah 2: 185)
“We revealed this (message) on Laylat al-Qadr” (al-Qadr 1: 97).
At first glance, these verses appear to contradict Islamic history, indicating that the Noble Qur’an was revealed immediately on the night of Laylat al-Qadr and Laylat al-Qadr, not in stages. However, this point made clear the presence of Abdullah bin Abbas, who claimed that the Qur’an had been revealed from the Mahfouz Brigade, the “ Tablet of Fate ” to the lower sky, the House of Pride, “ House on the Night of Fate. From this lower heaven, the Qur’an appeared in stages on the earth, and it was the first revelation on the Night of Power. Then the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, quoted the verse
From the Qur’an to support this view:
“(It is) the Qur’an, which we divided (into parts from time to time), so that we can read it to men. At intervals, we revealed it in stages.”
(Torrent 17: 106)
9. Revelation in stages
The Qur’an was not revealed in one case, but through a fragmented process in small quantities of verses that were revealed at all times. Hazrat bin Ishtar mentioned that a verse or two is usually revealed to the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, at any time. Other scholars such as Imam Bahaqi, Hazrat Umar (Rad) and Hazrat Ali (Rad) believe that four to five verses will be revealed simultaneously.
When the revelation began, the pagan Arabs witnessed the fragmented process and used it as a tool to attack new Muslims. They mocked them by asking why the Quran was not immediately revealed if it was a divine book:
Those who reject faith say: Why did the Qur’an not revealed to him? (Al-Furqan 25:32)
Then the Qur’an responds eloquently to its criticism: “Therefore (revealed), so that we can strengthen your heart in this way, and try it gradually and well-organized.” (Al-Furqan, 25:32) “(And it is) the Qur’an that we divided (in parts from time to time), so that it could be read to men at intervals: We revealed it in stages.” (Al-Israa, 17:10)
10.Recording of Revelation
The first way to record verses from the Noble Qur’an was memorization. Upon receiving Al-Wahi, the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, immediately committed all the passages he revealed in his memory, known as the hifz: “… the Messenger of God, the Bible repeats, has kept himself as a cook and holy (98: 2) and since then he recited The same thing for his companions Hazrat bin Masoud was the first to read the Qur’an publicly in Mecca, and the Arabs at that time were an illiterate nation, but they were a fan of poetry and storytelling as being an oral culture in the first place, the Arabs memorized the poems and stories to communicate them to others, and they had a greater sense of memory From other countries, the passage of Muslims from the Qur’an, they immediately confined it easily and encouraged the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) this practice Hazrat Uthman bin Affan tells the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) saying that most of the companions are those who learned the Qur’an and then learned The same passages were read regularly in the five daily prayers, which made the memorial of the verses a daily occurrence. It was also a practice by the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, to hear the recitation of the Holy Qur’an from the Companions. Hazrat Ibn Masoud (rad) in particular on how to shed the Prophet, peace be upon him And he was greeted after hearing his recitation from Surat An-Nisa.
During the life of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, the scribes also carefully wrote passages from the HolyQur’an in a variety of different writing materials. These ranged from pieces of leather, leather and blankets. However, once all the syllables are recorded, the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, will personally verify the written records and ensure that all the words are correct and in the correct order.
Each time a verse is revealed, companions are informed of the name of the surah in question and the place in which it will be placed in the Qur’an. Hazrat bin Abbas says that Hazrat Othman bin Affan announced that when the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, received a revelation, he would invite a companion to write it and then tell them where to place the verse in the arrangement of the Qur’an. Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal reported that Hazrat Uthman bin Abi Al-As narrated: “He once sat with the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him when the revelation came. Then he looked down and the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, said that the pocket of Gabriel came to me and commanded me to put this verse in this Surah Imam Malik explains how some Muslims sent written papers collected from the Qur’an (the Qur’an) to the inhabitants of Yemen in order to keep them clean and safe, which confirms the writing of the Qur’an in some during the life of the Holy Prophet. (Saw) The Qur’an also describes himself as A book, a well-preserved book that refers to an organized collection in one way or another.
As the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, asked the companions where to place each verse, they never interfered in the divine order. Hazrat bin Zubair (rad) said that he asked Hazrat Othman (rad) why he put a verse in the Qur’an when he revealed it. Hazrat Uthman (rad) replied that he had no power to change the order, which was divinely revealed.
Remember that the Qur’an is not just a prayer book but a practical guide to life. The man has learned in all fields, whether in marriage patterns, the penal system, codes and work ethics, as well as the personal field of relationships. As such, the Holy Qur’an is often called the “living Qur’an” because of its continuous use in daily life. Thus, every passage revealed to the Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, is invoked and read continuously, whether in daily prayers or in the affairs of daily life. In this way, it was impossible to make mistakes or errors in any of the words or syllables, since the words of the Qur’an have always been used. In fact, it was a living book. God Almighty is the ultimate guarantor and protector of the Qur’an to ensure that it is free from error and interference:
“We have definitely sent the message and we will definitely protect it (against corruption).” (Al-Hijr, 9: 9)
11.Revelation Period and Division of Qur’anic Surahs
As we indicated earlier, the first revelation revealed the traditional division of the wall between those who revealed in the holy city of Makkah (Surat Makki) and those who revealed in Medina (Sudan is civil). The following table shows the division of the disclosure period between the two cities:
Of the 114 surahs that have been unearthed, most have been unearthed in the holy city of Makkah. Surah Makki is classified as such if its beginning is revealed in Makkah, even if some parts are revealed later during the civil phase. Imam Al-Zarqashi believes that 85 fences were uncovered in Makkah. Other commentators believe that 86 has been revealed, while others give a slightly higher number. The difference lies in the fact that Surah 1, al-Fatihah and Surah 83, al-Mutaffa’in were revealed in Mecca or Medina. The Holy Quran came on 16 Ramadan 610 CE. A: The detection period lasted 22 years, two months, and 22 days. over there
Surah Maki has been revealed over a period of about 12 to 13 years, since Islam’s first call to immigration, immigration to Medina. Most of Makki Surat is shorter and deals with concepts related to monotheism, the unity of God. Good manners, behavior and life in the Hereafter: Heaven and Hell. Ayat Makki also contains passages from the Christian and Jewish Scriptures, detailing the prophets that God (Almighty God) has sent in the past.
12.The compilation of divine revelation
The Holy Qur’an has been compiled in three stages:
- In the life of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him
- During the caliphate (Rad), our master Abu Bakr
- During the succession of our master Othman bin Affan
13.In the life of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him
There is ample evidence to show that the entire Holy Qur’an was written in the life of the Prophets, may God bless him and grant him peace. As mentioned earlier when (saw) the revelation, the clerks were asked to record the revelation on parchment paper or pieces of leather. It also indicates the surah on which the verse is placed. The Companions have never interfered with the arrangement of verses and suras, and they are the same in the copies of the Qur’an available today. Hazrat Zaid bin Thabit was among the most prominent scribes, and he stated that he and his companions will collect the Holy Qur’an in the presence of the Messenger, may God bless him and grant him peace. During this time, the fence names were also known. Also, Al-Zawiya Gabriel (PBUH) came to the Holy Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, in Ramadan to hear him read the Qur’an, and he heard him twice in the year of his death.